The steel structure has the advantages of high strength, lightweight, high structural stability, environmental protection, and reusability. As steel structure buildings are built higher and higher, the volume is larger and larger, and the application is more and more extensive. The quality control of the structure is particularly important. This article will make an analysis of key points in steel structure design and construction from the following three aspects.
Key points of steel structure design
First of all, pay attention to the coordinated work of the upper and lower structures, and the effects of multi-directional seismic action should be taken into account. The most reasonable way to consider the cooperative work of upper and lower structures is to calculate the seismic action according to the overall structure model. The simplification of the substructure must be based on dynamic principles, that is, the effectiveness of the stiffness and mass should be considered comprehensively.
Use software to set the design model and perform calculations and analyses. In specific operations, the calculation model should be reasonably determined to ensure that the roof and other structures are consistent with the connection and structure of the main supporting parts. In addition, force analysis should also be considered. In calculation and analysis, in addition to simulating the force condition of the structure after its overall forming, it is also necessary to take into account the special stress condition of the construction process to avoid damage due to local stress exceeding the design value before the structure is formed. The calculation and simulation of the construction process need to take the lifting of components, the working conditions of different construction stages, the pre-deformation technology of the structure, the pre-assembly and unloading of the components into consideration.
The structural layout should avoid the formation of weak parts due to local weakening or sudden changes, resulting in excessive internal force and concentration of deformation. For possible weak spots, measures should be taken to improve seismic resistance. Therefore, when the structure is arranged, it should be ensured that the mass and rigidity distribution is balanced, and the integrity and force transmission of the structure are clear.
The seismic action of the roof should be able to be effectively transmitted downwards through the supports to avoid the concentration of internal forces or the large torsion effect of the roof. The layout of the roof, support and substructure should be uniform and symmetrical to ensure the integrity of the roof structure. Therefore, the spatial force transmission system should be given priority to avoid local weakening or sudden changes in weak parts. A light roof system should be adopted, so the unit weight of the roof system must be strictly controlled.
Key points of steel structure quality control
1.Installation accuracy control
Complicated space steel structure should be measured and controlled during installation. Because steel structure construction measurement control is a part of construction technology, the rationality and advancement of the engineering construction plan is analyzed from a large amount of measurement and control data and the results are reflected and confirmed. For long-span steel structures, due to the large difference between the deformation and stress state of the structure during the construction process and after forming, thus it is necessary to use a variety of support frames to ensure the accuracy of the structure.
Because the large-span steel structure has the characteristics of large unloading tonnage, wide distribution of unloading points, large single-point unloading force, and large workload of unloading calculation and analysis, if the supporting force is released unreasonably, the structure will be damaged or the scaffold will lose stability gradually. Therefore, the system conversion plan must be taken as the principal when the steel structure is unloaded, the structural calculation and analysis should be taken as the basis.
When hoisting large-span steel beams, the steel beam is prone to lateral bending and even more serious deformation if traditional two-point hoisting is selected without reasonable hoisting point calculations. Due to the long steel beam structure, the large distance between the hoisting points, and the self-weight and variable load effects, steel beams and cables are subjected to a great axial force. The large-span steel structure construction site should strengthen management, increase the training of workers' knowledge so that they have a more concrete understanding of the force characteristics of the components and the knowledge of hoisting.
As the large-span steel structure requires high installation sequence if the installation sequence is not considered reasonable and the steel components do not meet the requirements of hoisting, which may affect the safety of the structure. When designing the construction, the installation sequence should be arranged reasonably, and the factory processing, component transportation, and on-site installation should be coordinated in a unified manner, and strictly implemented during the construction process.
Key points of steel structure construction technology
1.Manufacturing technology of structural components and special-shaped nodes
Various large-span, complex spatial shapes of steel structure buildings require complex local forces and difficult production of steel components. Therefore, in the construction of complex projects, the production of structural components and special-shaped nodes should meet the stress conditions to ensure that engineering quality and safety.
2.Integral sliding construction technology
The more critical issue in the construction of large-span steel structures is the stability of the structure before it forms space as a whole. The sliding construction technology uses traction equipment that can control the synchronization to move the structure which is divided into several stable bodies along a certain track from the assembly position to the design position, which can better solve this problem.
3.High-altitude unsupported assembling construction technology
The high-altitude block expansion unit has no support assembly technology. The construction principle is: the reasonable segmentation of the structural system and selection of the hoisting sequence so that the construction process does not need to set up a supporting platform. The rigidity of the structure is used to form a stable unit. Finally, the overall structure is formed.
4.Steel structure anti-corrosion construction technology
The construction should be carried out by a combination of roller coating and brush coating. Large area construction should be roller coated, and small components should be brush coated. The specific construction method should be reasonably selected according to the site conditions. Also, the first layer of primer should be applied in the same direction, and the connection should be neat and should follow the principle of frequent dips and short brushes, and operate in accordance with the specifications to prevent the brush from being painted too much and causing flow.
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