The sound development of the building steel structure has promoted the structural adjustment of the steel structure, and the building steel structure has entered a new stage. Due to the advantages of low cost, high strength, lightweight, and fast construction speed, steel structure engineering has made a large number of steel structures successively used in industrial plants and high-rise buildings.
At the same time, due to the special use function of the steel structure workshop, the special requirements of the production process and the uniqueness of the large span and high strength, a large number of steel structures need to be hoisted, welded and ascended at the construction site to provide safe work for the construction personnel Brought greater danger. Therefore, security has always been a top priority. The main safety issues in the construction of steel structure workshops and the preventive measures that should be taken are discussed below.
A. Management measures
1. The "Safety Production Responsibility System" and safety management system should be established and perfected, and the "Safety Management Responsibility Statement" signed by the management personnel at all levels to each employee should be signed to clarify their respective safety responsibilities.
2. Strengthen safety knowledge training and education, establish the "safety first, prevention first" idea, and strive to improve safety prevention awareness
3. All personnel engaged in construction operations and management must strictly implement the safety operation regulations.
4. Construction workers should be familiar with the safety technical operation regulations of this type of work, understand the responsibilities of their respective safety production positions, and earnestly implement various safety management systems.
5. Establish and strictly implement safety inspection systems at all levels.
6. Prior to the construction work, it is necessary to do a good job of explaining the quality and safety technology and danger points of the employees.
7. Safety inspections, construction logs, etc. should be done during construction operations.
8. A conspicuous quality and safety warning slogan should be hung on the construction site.
B. Several safety problems and measures in the construction process
In the whole construction process of the steel structure workshop, there are many mechanical equipments involved, high-altitude operations and many cross-operations, so various safety problems will occur, which are briefly described below.
1. Safety measures for component entry
1) When transporting components, vehicles should be selected according to the length and weight of the components.
2) The components should be leveled with wooden blocks on the transport vehicle, the super-long components should be marked, and the lashing should be firm to ensure that the components are not deformed during transportation and do not damage the paint coating.
3) During the loading and unloading operations, it is necessary to prevent the components from collapsing and falling and injuring people. When loading and unloading the cargo, follow the instructions of the commander.
4) Proofread the relevant list of shipping components.
5) When lifting, the lifting tools should be firm and reliable, and various parts that are not welded firmly and not connected and fastened are not allowed to be lifted without being firmly tied.
6) Lifting bulk items must be tied firmly and balanced before lifting.
2. Safety measures for plant foundation engineering
1) Make installation templates to control the spacing and height standards of individual bolts within the allowable deviation range.
2) Fix the bolt set to protect the bolt thread from being damaged when the concrete is poured.
3. Measures to prevent the crane from tipping over
1) The roads at the hoisting site must be level and solid, and the backfill and soft soil layers should be treated. If the soil is soft, roads should be paved separately.
2) It is forbidden to hang diagonally. Inclined slings can cause overload, which can cause rope breakage and rollover accidents.
3) The sling of the binding member must be calculated.
4) The lashing method should be correct and firm to prevent the sling from breaking or slipping off the component during lifting, causing the crane to tip over due to weightlessness.
5) All lifting tools should be regularly checked for safety.
6) Strictly abide by the "ten no lifting" regulations for lifting machinery.
4. Measures to prevent falling from a height
1) For high-altitude operations, strictly implement the "Technical Specifications for Safety in High-Altitude Construction Operations".
2) Operators must set up safety nets and use safety belts correctly when working at heights.
3) It is not allowed to climb the steel column freehand
4) If workers need to work at height, they should set up a tool-type temporary operating table with a width of 0.8～1.0m.
5) If you need to walk on the roof truss, you should set a lifeline on the roof truss.
6) The ladder for climbing must be firm. When using it, the ladder must be tied with the fixed member.
7) If the operator is walking on the paved roof panel, he should maintain a high concentration of attention to prevent stepping on the headboard and falling and hurting people.
8) When installing floor or roof slabs with reserved holes, safety guardrails should be installed in time.
9) The operator must not wear hard-soled leather shoes to climb up.
5. Measures to prevent falling objects from hurting people
1) Personnel entering the construction work area must properly wear safety helmets.
2) The tools and parts used by high-altitude operators should be placed in a tool bag worn by the person, and cannot be thrown down at will.
3) In high-air cutting or electric welding, effective precautions should be taken to prevent sparks from falling and injuring people or causing a fire.
4) Ground operators should try to avoid staying or passing directly under the high-altitude working surface and must not stay or pass under the crane boom or the components being hoisted.
5) After the component is installed, the quality of the connection must be checked. Only when the connection is confirmed to be safe and reliable can the hook be loosened or the fixing tool removed.
6) Temporary railings should be set around the lifting site to prevent non-workers from entering.
6. Measures to prevent electric shock and gas cylinder explosion
1) Power consumption at the construction site should strictly implement the "Technical Specifications for Safety of Temporary Power Consumption at the Construction Site".
2) Temporary electricity use on the construction site must be operated by a professional electrician who has obtained a certificate for passing special operation training exams.
3) The power lines for construction shall all use qualified cables, the power supply shall adopt a three-phase five-wire system, and a special protection neutral shall be provided.
4) The main distribution box and distribution box are equipped with rain cover and door lock, and corresponding leakage protection devices are set.
5) The electric wires for construction to the floor should be laid with casing and clamped firmly.
6) The electric machinery must be specially managed by a person. When using small hand-held electric tools, the lock box with leakage protection should be used.
7) There must be sufficient lighting facilities during night construction.
8) When the crane is driving under the wire, the crane driver should pay special attention to the highest point of the boom and the free height of the wire, and set up a special person to command when necessary.
9) When carrying oxygen cylinders, earthquake-proof measures must be taken, and it must never fall violently on the ground; it should not be exposed to sunlight, nor should it be close to the fire source.
10) If the power cord of the electric welding machine is broken, it must be tightly wrapped with adhesive tape in time.
7. Safety and fire prevention measures
1) Set up a safety and fire prevention leading group to do a good job in fire prevention.
2) Smoking is strictly prohibited at the construction site and warehouse.
3). Combustible and explosive items such as wooden boards and paints must be stored separately in the safe storage area, and obvious fire prevention signs shall be set up.
4). The oxygen cylinder and acetylene cylinder must be stored at a safe distance (3-5 meters). The barometer must be effective. It should be lifted gently, not impacted and stored under high temperature and pressure.
5). Fire-fighting equipment must be complete and effectively placed at the required location and must be inspected regularly to ensure that it works properly.
6) Adhere to the safety fire inspection system, find hidden dangers, and eliminate them in time to prevent fire accidents.
7) On-site operators should consciously participate in fire safety training and use fire equipment correctly.
8) It is forbidden to carry the fire into the production and storage of flammable and explosive dangerous goods.
8. Safety measures for installation of building enclosure engineering
1) The position of purlin should be reviewed before the purlin installation.
2) Inspection of plastic steel window entry certificate, product test report, and appearance.
3) The gap between the plastic steel window and the outer frame of the fixed plastic steel window should be controlled. When installing the upper and lower frames of the window, be sure to measure with a spirit level to ensure its level,
9. Safety technical measures of construction machinery
1) The use of on-site machinery should strictly implement the "Safety Technical Regulations for the Use of Construction Machinery"
2) Check the machinery, instruments, tools, etc. before working, and confirm that they are intact before use.
3) The machine shall not be operated with disease and overloaded. If abnormal conditions are found, the machine shall be shut down and inspected. It shall not be inspected and repaired during the operation of the machine.
4) Special operation personnel must undergo special training, pass the examination, and obtain the operation certificate of special operation personnel before performing independent operation of this type of work. Non-special operations personnel are strictly prohibited from engaging in special operations.
5) All mechanical equipment must be operated by professionals, and frequently check whether the safety devices are complete and effective.
In the actual construction process of the steel structure factory building, there are many hidden safety hazards, and the specific measures taken are also different. Safety work is a major responsibility shouldered by each of our construction personnel. Keep in mind the lessons of blood, do our due diligence and do the work When it comes to safe production, the alarm sounds.